Lutheranism appeared in Europe after a century reformist unrest in Italy under Girolamo Savonarola , in the Czech Republic by Jan Hus , and in England under the Lollards. Personal experience troubled monk Luther gave shape to many of the original impulses of the Protestant Reformation Lutheranism and colors to the present . Like many people of conscience in his time , Luther was disturbed by the immorality and corruption in the Roman Catholic Church , but he is more focused on reform, which he thinks has been damaged training. After he experienced what he thought impulses Grace , he proclaimed the message of divine promise and denounced human dignity, through which he fears most Catholics thought they earn God’s favor .

Lutheranism — one of the oldest Protestant denominations in Christianity . [1] With Lutheranism itself bound emergence of the concept of Protestantism , as it became known as the Protestant Lutherans after their protest in Speyer . Arisen as a result of the reform movement in Germany in the XVI century , and then during the formation of the state churches of the Scandinavian countries . Basic principles of Faith Lutheran Church were formulated in the course of the struggle of Martin Luther and his followers against the abuses of the Roman Catholic Church , on the one hand, and the more radical Protestant movements — other ( Anabaptism , Calvinism , Zwinglianism etc.) .

Lutheranism branches of Protestantism, which generally corresponds to the teachings of the 16th century reformer Martin Luther. Lutheran movement scattered after 1517 in Saxony through many other German territories in Scandinavia. In the 18th century it has spread to America and, later, in many countries, and he came to number more than 70 million adherents. As such, it lays claim to being among the largest Roman Catholic body in the Western Christian Church. Luther came across his discoveries by reading the Bible, he also liked to add to his motto Scripture instruction, which means that Lutherans should only use the Bible as the source and norm for their teachings.

Lutheran movement quickly gained popularity in Germany during the period of rising nationalism among the people who resented sending their wealth to Rome. Early Lutherans were largely based in universities and use their training to spread the faith among the international community of scholars . By 1530 they were formulating their own Confession of Faith and conditions based on independently without reform the Lutheran side , which is prevalent in most of the Nordic countries . By 1580 and over the next century , these confessions are becoming more stringent academic expression for determining the church formally. Since then , Lutheranism has been known as the doctrinal and even dogmatic church.

Lutheranism was not and can not live only teaching her professors. In the late 17th century it was more tender side , which grew out of piety Luther , appeared in the form of a movement called Pietism . Nominally Orthodox faith and practice of the Pietists stressed Bible reading, prayer circles and devotion , and love affairs . This pietism was somewhat unstable , and its declining doctrine she helped prepare for Lutherans Enlightenment , when many leaders and some of the faithful turned to rationalism . Later , under the influence of Lutheran theology has often taken on a radical character , especially in Germany . As a result, often a significant gap between intellectual expression Lutheran liturgy and preaching and his community.

From the outset , Lutheranism was to tackle the problem of his relationship with the civilian authorities . Although Luther was a rebel against papal teaching , he was obedient to reform the social order and rejected the radical peasant uprisings ( «War of the peasant ) . Fearing anarchy over authoritarianism , Lutherans gravitated to the biblical teaching that emphasizes the authority of the state more than the civil liberties of its citizens. most of them were not happy about the separation of church and state , and the world in Augsburg ( 1555 ) adopted the principle that the ruler is determined by the rules of faith . Later Lutherans enthusiastic republican and democratic government as the application of the principle that God works differently in two civil and ecclesiastical authority . Many German Lutherans were silent or co-op , however, when the Nazi regime took over the church, only the confession of the Church , led by Martin Niemoller, against the regime directly.

Lutherans have been more willing than many other Christians to see the persistence of evil powers created and fallen world, or the world under the influence of sin. Consequently, they put more of their energy security and charity work — in orphanages, hospitals and motion deaconesses — than in the social scheme to transform the world.

In Europe, most of the Lutheran Church bishop who ruled bishops and churches of Denmark , Finland, Iceland , Norway and Sweden established. In North America and other countries Lutherans prefer community and synodical form of government in which local churches link together to achieve common goals. In the United States , Lutherans merged into three main bodies : the Lutheran Church in America (membership, 2.9 million ) , the Lutheran Church — Missouri Synod ( 2.6 million ) , and the American Lutheran Church (2.3 million ) . American Lutheran Church , the Lutheran Church in America, and the third group , the Association of Evangelical Lutheran Churches , united in 1987 to form the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America.

Lutheranism is usually friendly to the ecumenical movement , and with some exceptions , Lutheran churches participated in gatherings of Christians across the world confessional and denominational boundaries. Lutherans consider themselves both evangelical and Catholic , because they have points in common with other Protestant churches on the one hand, and with the Orthodox , Roman Catholic and Anglican Christians , on the other . In the ecumenical age, however, they kept very identity through their common loyalty to the teachings of the 16th century Lutheranism .


History of the movement in Russia

The emergence of Lutheranism dates back to the first half of the XVI century, when Western Europe came a grand spiritual uplift , known in history as the Reformation churches . After that, the state of the church in many Western European countries (Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Norway , etc.) have become churches of the Evangelical Lutheran faith . But it turns out that in Russia Lutherans appeared almost simultaneously with the spread of Lutheranism in Western Europe. We hope that this historical and ethnographic study would be interesting for anyone interested in the history of our country and its spiritual traditions .

In 1524-33 years. Grand Prince Vasily III were caused by the West artisans, farmers, artists, merchants and doctors. They were Swedes, Finns, Germans, among whom were many people adhered Lutheran. Due to the fact that they were invited so tall person, they had the right to freely conduct their worship.

Under Ivan IV Grozny in Russia were called interpreters , doctors , surgeons, the printers , and then did not stop the inflow of workers and the number of Lutheran communities in Russia increased. Some Lutheran pastors awarded interviews with the king of faith and even fought with him written arguments on this topic. German pastor and author of works on the life of Ivan the Terrible Oderborn Paul indicates that the king liked Sermons Bakgorna that he looked at the teachings of Luther » as close to the truth » , as people loved pastors scientists. In 1552 the Danish king , at the request of Ivan IV, together with artists and typographers sent him the Augsburg Confession and Luther’s Catechism translated into Russian , so that they had brought them to the printer has printed thousands of copies . And probably no coincidence Ivan the Terrible just for Lutheran , Danish Duke Magnus , married one of the daughters of his cousin Vladimir Staritsky . Despite the honors rendered , severe temper king sometimes disrupted and Lutherans . In 1570 Lutherans sent to Ivan the Terrible embassy with intent to engage with him and the Russian Church in Union . It is said that when the head of the embassy Liflyandskii Pastor Jan Rokita told for Luther faith compared with the apostle Paul , the king struck him on the head with a whip , and then banned all Protestants all dissemination of their faith , and even the entrance to the Russian churches . However , taken prisoner during the Livonian War, 1558-82 years. Germans and thousands of Scots were settled in different cities of Russia with the right to freely practice their faith. Over time, the Lutherans began to settle in Moscow — first settlement Kukui (later nicknamed the «German » ) and then in the city center . In the German settlement in the 1560-65 years. they had their own community , which led Vitterman pastor and parishioners were among the Livonian nobles , held in the person of the king.

In 1573 the Danish Duke Magnus received from Ivan IV permission to build a church in Moscow, his religion. Subsequently, in this temple , according to legend , was buried bride princess Xenia Godunov , Danish Duke John , where in 1637 at the request of the Danish king , his body was transported home. In other cities of Russia , where the German settlers and prisoners , they also formed a community, but not having temples, gathered for prayer in the homes of pastors. Said Pastor Vitterman , for example, moving from town to town . In general , the Lutherans lived in the time of Ivan the Terrible in Russian better than in Western Europe, where they were uphill struggle for existence .

Under Tsar Fedor Ivanovich had a lot of Lutherans among Protestants , who had served in his five thousand foreign party. Very favorable for Lutherans was the reign of Boris Godunov. In 1601, the son of the Swedish king Gustav Erich XIV received from Tsar Boris in Moscow permission to erect a new , spacious temple in the White City , in Pokrovsky Gates . Money to build the temple gave the Prince , as well as the German doctors who served in Godunov. In Moscow, was erected and another Lutheran church — Build it suggested the king himself , right in the Kremlin , and preachers for this parish were called from Germany. Boris commanded the church with his own money to build a wooden tower and hang it on three bells . Historians believe the Lutheran Church during the reign of Boris Godunov highest point rise in pre-Petrine Russia Lutheranism .

Favored Lutherans and Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich. In 1643 the Lutheran community has received from him, » this » for the construction of Protestant church on the spot where later was erected » Red Gate » . Lutheran congregation called Temple Mikhailovsky , in honor of the Archangel Michael (possibly the same name , the patron king , they also wanted to express his gratitude to the king for the opportunity to find the house of God — » this » was approved by the king on the day of his angel communication . Michael Magen ) . By Lutherans and other Protestants in Moscow each year increased by the end of the reign of Mikhail Fedorovich , there were already 1,000 families. An important fact in the history of Lutheranism in Russia is the arrival in Moscow of the Danish Prince Christian Valdemar — as groom princess Irina . On both sides of this marriage was a very welcome , but there was a question about the need to address the prince in Orthodoxy. Due to his disagreement on this between Danish theologians and Patriarch were conducted multiple oral interviews and correspondence . This event also caused controversy abundant written Danish pastor Filgobera with known Orthodox theologian , priest Ivan snoopers . Lutheranism spread quite widely in the lands ceded to Sweden Stolbovsky contract in 1617 : in Ingria ( Izhora , now Leningrad region . ) , Karelia. Ingrian Finnish parishes — one of the oldest Lutheran congregations in Russia. For example , coming to Koltushy was founded in 1628 , in Skvoritsy — in 1640.

During the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich built with its parent Michael’s Church was moved out of the city , the German settlement , where, according to the imperial decree had now to settle all » Germans » (so called since ancient times in Russia and the Swedes and Finns, and other nations ) . This area has become a vast landscaped colony ; Lutherans have here two churches .

In 1662 at the request of the Saxon court in Moscow formed a special Lutheran congregation — Saxon , which was the first pastor Johann Gregory, remarkable and outstanding personality ; to his » drama school » for training were given to 26 elected Russian boys. At the end of the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich distinguished and wealthy Germans again lived in the city center . Swedes , after the armistice , was allowed to build their homes in Moscow, Novgorod , Pskov, Pereslavl and Belgorod, where they were given the right to send in their houses of worship . At different factories around Moscow and Tula they had their own houses of worship . All of them were very rich and gave good content to their pastors .

The most favorable era for Lutherans in Russia began with the ascension to the throne of Peter I. The Lutheran church was not only tolerated , but even enjoyed the patronage of the sovereign . Peter himself occasionally attended church, and even the spiritual sang hymns. Many members of the royal family and the Russian nobility intermarry with German noble families , most of the Lutheran faith . Near Lefortovo palace king allowed to erect a new stone in the name of St. Kirche . Apostles Peter and Paul and its tab himself laid the first stone. German authors even claim that Peter built it with his own money. During the reign of Peter the four Lutheran church in Moscow were already stone , and even in factories around Moscow were two such church. There are Lutheran churches in Tula, Novgorod, Kazan and Astrakhan, where before there were only community with preachers , but no church buildings . In Voronezh, were two stone churches, where pastors preached scientists .

The number of Lutherans Russia increased significantly under Catherine II, who decided to bring the Germans to land development Volga . Two-thirds of new settlements arising along the lower Volga , were Lutheran . Small groups of Lutherans also settled in southern Russia in the Crimea, Bessarabia and the Caucasus . In the XVIII century in St. Petersburg alone lived more than 20,000 Lutherans .

Inflow into Russia Lutherans continued throughout the XIX century. Lutheran communities appeared in the mining towns of Ukraine, Murmansk, Vladivostok , Tashkent and even in Alaska ( 1867) By 1904, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of the Russian Empire had 287 Lutheran churches , and the number of the faithful Lutherans was over a million people . Over time, strengthened the position of the Lutheran Church in Russian society , its legal status . In 1802 the University of Dorpat opens Lutheran Theological Faculty in 1832 formed the administrative structure of the Lutheran Church , which existed until 1917.

With the advent of Soviet power in 1917, the time has come for all hardships Russian believers for all church communities. Terrible persecution and repression suffered Russian Orthodox Church , and with it the rest of the church. A strong wave of repression against the Lutheran Church swept in 1926-28 . Many Lutheran clergy were arrested and died in Soviet prisons. In 1927, the USSR had 114 Lutheran pastors , in 1934 -45, in 1936 — 8 , and by the end of 1937 there was no general or pastors or congregations . Churches were expropriated and transferred warehouses , manufacturing facilities and other needs of the church was destroyed during the war . Church activity lasted many decades underground preachers , laity. After the annexation of the Baltic states of Estonia Lutherans began to exert their co-religionists assistance through parishes in Narva and Petrozavodsk. Revival of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Russia began in the mid -1950s . After a long break, the first Lutheran congregation Russian Germans was registered in Kazakhstan in 1955 In 1977, the parish was opened in Pushkin (Leningrad region . ) — The first of the Ingrian Lutheran communities , revived in the late 70s — early 80s.

After separation of Estonia, in 1992, formed the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Ingria in Russia, uniting believers, mainly Finnish origin, but also not a few Estonians, Russian, Jews, Tatars, Germans, etc. There are more than 40 parishes, mostly in Ingria but also in Karelia, Moscow and central Russia. Liturgical languages ​​- Russian, Finnish, German, etc.

Currently, the Russian Federation officially registered two Russian Lutheran Church:

Evangelical Lutheran Church in Russia and Other States (Die evangelisch-lutherische Kirche Russlands und anderer Staaten, ELKRAS). German Lutheran tradition.

2) Evangelical Lutheran Church of Ingria (Inkerin evankelis-luterilainen kirkko). Scandinavian (Finnish-Swedish) Lutheran tradition.