Министерство образования Российской Федерации
Федеральное агентство по образованию
Марийский государственный технический университет
для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы
студентов специальности ЛАрх
по дисциплине “Деловой английский язык”
1. Read the following international words and give their Russian equivalents:
Organization, structure, function, coordinate, centralize, position, management, hierarchy, boss, functional, finance, decentralization, instruction, Vice-President
2. Study the following text:
In business, organization structure means the relationships between positions and people who hold the positions. Organization structure is very important because it provides an efficient work system as well as a system of communication. First of all we should distinguish between the organizing function and organizing structure. The organizing function is the process of breaking down the overall task into small jobs along with delegated authority to do those jobs and then putting them back together in units, or departments, of an optimal size according to some consistent bases. Thus we can describe the organizing function as dividing a task into jobs, delegating authority, determining appropriate bases for departmentalizing jobs, and deciding the optimal number of jobs in a particular department. It helps to coordinate effort and create authority relationships. Organizing structure is considered by many to be “the anatomy of the organization, providing a foundation within which the organization functions”. So the idea of a structure is a frame work – differentiation of position, prescriptions of authority. So structure helps to regulate the behavior of employees. There can be different kinds of organization structure, and firms can change their organization structure by becoming more or less centralized. The main principle of modern management is that there are no the best structure – appropriate structure depends on situation.
Most organizations have a hierarchical or pyramidal structure, with one person or a group of people at the top, and increasing number of people below them at each successive level. There is a clear line or chain of command running down the pyramid. All the people in the organization know what decision they are able to make, who their superior (or boss) is (to whom they report), and who their immediate subordinates are (to whom they can give instructions).
This structure is one of the simplest and it’s also called a line structure. Some people in the organization have colleagues who help them: for example, there are might be an Assistant to the Marketing Manager. This is known as a staff position: its holder has no line authority, and is not integrated into the chain of command, unlike, for example, the Assistant Marketing Manager, who is number two in the marketing department.
This structure is known as a staff structure. Yet the activities of most companies are too complicated to be organized in a single hierarchy. Shortly, before the First World War, the French industrialist Henry Fayol organized his coal-mining business according to the functions that it had to carry out. He is generally credited with inventing functional organization, including (among others) production, finance, marketing, sales, and personnel or staff departments.
The functional type of organization structure reflects an arrangement based on the nature of the activities that must be performed. Related activities are grouped together in the functional areas with which they are most clearly identified. The chief executive of each area occupies a position on the second level of the organization and generally has the title Vice-President. This means, for example, that the production and marketing departments cannot take financial decisions without consulting the finance department. The functional structure allows for coordination of related activities, thereby reducing the risk of empire building by specialized areas and resulting in greater efficiency. The structure’s most distinguishing feature is that staff managers may have line (functional) authority for their particular activities. But in a functional structure the request could be an order.
Many organizations choose to follow decentralization of authority. But it also has disadvantages: 1. It needs more intensive and expensive management training. Managers must be retrained for making high-level decisions. 2. It needs more sophisticated planning and reporting methods, especially for upper management, because the flow of information to upper managers increases. 3. Top managers should delegate a portion of their decision-making job to middle and first level managers, but sometimes they can be unwilling and unable to do it.
3. Learn the following words and expressions:
начальник, старший по положению
маркетинг, организация сбыта
президент компании, главный исполнительный директор
работа по принятию решений
4. Match the verbs in the left column with their Russian equivalents in the right one:
c) управлять, приводить в порядок
h) считать, полагать
i) отличать, различать
5. Match the phrases in the left column with their Russian equivalents in the right one:
hold the position
a) зависеть от ситуации
delegate an authority
b) выполнять виды деятельности
divide a task
c) давать указания
depend on the situation
d) разделять задание
e) отражать структуру
f) принимать решение
reflect an arrangement
g) занимать должность
take a decision
h) передавать полномочие
6. Match the following words with their definitions:
a) a system, society, company, etc. that is organized into different levels, so that there is a small number of people at the top and a much larger number of people at the bottom
b) someone whose job is to manage a part or all of a company or other organization
c) a group of related parts that work together as a whole for a particular purpose
d) the activity of controlling and organizing the work that a company or organization does
e) the process of teaching or being taught the skills for a particular job or activity
f) a group such as a club or business that has been formed for a particular purpose
g) the activity of making money by producing or buying and selling goods, or providing services
7. Fill in the gaps with the following words:
Behaviour, decisions, structure, areas, colleagues, managers
1. We should distinguish between the organizing function and organizing ________.
2. The structure helps to regulate the _________ of employees.
3. Employees at an organization have _________who help them.
4. Related activities are grouped together in the functional ______ with which they are most clearly identified.
5. _______ must be retrained for making high-level_________.
8. Answer the following questions.
What is the organizing function?
What is the main principle of modern management?
What kind of structure do most organizations have?
What role does a chief executive of each functional area have in the organization structure?
Why does the functional structure provide greater efficiency?
What disadvantages does decentralization of authority have?
9. Read the following statements and decide if they are true or false.
Organization structure is very important because of its efficient work system and a system of communication.
Firms can unite their organization structure by becoming more or less centralized.
A few people in the organization know what decision they are able to make.
The activities of most companies can’t be organized in a single hierarchy.
Many organizations follow decentralization of authority.
Top managers always desire to delegate a portion of their decision-making job to middle and first level managers.
10. Study the following chart showing a typical company structure:
Board of Directors
MarketingPublic RelationsInformation Technology
Personnel (Human Resources)FinanceProduction
Research and Development
Write a description of this structure stating the responsibilities of the Board of Directors, the Managing Director, and various company departments.
Use the following phrases:
To be at the top of…To have overall responsibility for…
To be headed by…To be responsible for…
To appoint…To be in charge of…
11. Imagine that you are a representative of a landscape design company. Give a talk about your company and its responsibilities.
Use the following phrases:
Our company is called…
The company was established in…
It is a … company, based in …
Its main business area is…
The main products are…
The company is involved in… (specializes in…, produces…, manufactures…, provides…, etc.)
The company is committed to…
We have… branches (subsidiaries) in…
Our clients are…
The owner / founder / Chairman / CEO is…
The annual turnover is … with profits of…
The company is planning to launch/develop/expand…
12. Role play ‘Company status’.
Work in pairs. One of you is a manager of a landscape designing company that wants to do business with a similar company. The other is a representative of the company accrediting agency. The manager calls the representative of the company accrediting agency to enquire about the status of the company they want to deal with. The agency representative should give him/her true information about this company.
Use the following phases:
Company managerAgency representative
I’d like to enquire about…The company is not listed in…
We should be obliged if you couldThey have an excellent reputation.
provide us with…We assure you that…
You may be assured that your reply We would strongly advise you against…
will be treated in strict confidence.We have no reservation in recommending…
This a new market area for usWe consider that you could deal with this
and we don’t know… company without any risk because…
Read the following international words and give their Russian equivalents:
Etiquette, information, competence, address, resume, demonstrate, interest, television, business, process, company, corporate, personal
Study the following text:
Job hunting is often a difficult and confusing process, with strict deadlines, stress-inducing interviews, and unfamiliar rules of etiquette. However, by becoming familiar with the recruiting schedule and process it is possible to find a perfect job with little effort.
1. Write a CV/resume
The first step is to compose a CV (curriculum vitae)/resume. The most important information to include is relevant professional experience and a list of skills such as computer competence and foreign languages, as well as awards or honors. Also be sure to include contact information, including your phone number, street address and e-mail address.
Resumes traditionally open with a purpose or objective. This is a two or three sentence overview of your skills, qualities, hopes, and plans. Sometimes to apply for a job, the employer will send you an application form. You should still use a covering letter, and send your CV/resume unless told not to. Application forms need as much care to write as CVs/resumes. Plan everything you will say on a separate piece of paper. Only complete the real form when you are exactly sure what is the best thing to say. Follow the directions and keep the form neat.
2. Write a cover letter
Often companies will require a covering letter along with a CV/resume. The letter should demonstrate an understanding of what the company does and why you would be an asset to it. Indicate how you heard about the company and that you are seeking an interview. This is a chance to stand out from the many CVs/resumes that the company is undoubtedly receiving, so be sure to emphasize why you stand out.
Effective covering letter explains the reasons for your interest in the organization and identify your most relevant skills or experiences. They should express a high level of interest and knowledge about the position you are applying for.
Ask yourself, «Why do I want to work for this organization?» Newspaper stories or magazines article may be available at the local library. The employer may be in the yellow pages or advertise over the radio or local television. When we can speak intelligently about a place of business, we give that employer respect. By focusing on the employer we are better able to determine if the company can meet our needs and are displaying interest in the needs of the company.