Section 1. Crimes and criminals
Ex.1 a. Read and translate the words.
arsonist assault blackmail burglar embezzlement forger hijacking kidnapping manslaughter murder perjury pickpocket rape robbery shoplifter slander smuggling terrorist theft thief treason trespassing gangster
b. Organize the words into two groups: crimes and criminals
Ex.2 Fill in the table with the words from the exercise 1.
to set fire
Ex.3 Write the word according to its definition
the action of importing or exporting goods illegally
the crime of stealing money or property from a bank, shop, or vehicle, often by using force or threats
the crime of forging money, documents, or paintings
the illegal killing of a person by someone who did not intend to kill them
illegal entry of a building with intent to commit a crime, especially theft
the action of threatening to reveal a secret about someone, unless they do something you tell them to do, such as giving you money
an illegal action or activity for which a person can be punished by law
the crime of stealing
the offense of willfully telling an untruth in a court after having taken an oath
untrue spoken statement about someone which is intended to damage their reputation
Ex.4 Respond to the statements or questions confirming the crime in each one. Use the words from exercises 2 and 3.
Model: A: He broke into the house, didn’t he?
B: Yes, he’s been charged with burglary.
1. A: He killed his wife, didn’t he?
B: Yes, he’s been charged with….
3. A: The man on the motorbike didn’t mean to kill the boy, did he?
B: No, but he’s been charged with ……
2. A: She stole clothes and jewellery from that department store, didn’t she?
B: Yes, and she’s been charged with …….
4. A: Did he take the money from her bag?
B: Yes, but they caught him and he’s been charged with…….
Ex. 5. Look at the following list of ‘crimes’. Try to rate each crime on a scale from 1 to 10 (1 is a minor misdemeanour, 10 is a very serious crime). They are given in no order.
driving in excess of the speed limit
common assault (e.g. a fight in a discotheque)
drinking and driving
murdering a policeman during a robbery
selling drugs (such as heroin)
stealing £ 1,000 from a bank by fraud
stealing £ 1,000 worth of goods from someone’s home
grievous bodily harm (almost killing someone)
possessing a gun without a licence
Ex.6. a) Fill in the gaps with the transcription and translation of the words and word combinations. Read them:
1) виновная воля; 2) вина
b) Read the text and entitle it.
1.Crime is a term that refers to misconduct forbidden by law. Every crime consists of two elements: an actus reus and a mens rea. The actus reus is simply an act or it may be an omission to act. It must be accompanied by a particular mental state – the mens rea. Common examples of mens rea are recklessness, negligence and intenton to cause a particular consequence.
2.Crimes may be classified in various ways. For statistical purposes, many governments divide crimes into offences against people, against property, and against public order or public morality. Other important kinds of crime include organized crime and white-collar crime.
3.Crimes against people include assault, kidnapping, murder, and sexual attacks. Such crimes usually bring severe punishment.
4.Crimes against property include arson, burglary, embezzlement, forgery, fraud, theft, and vandalism. In most countries, these crimes carry lighter penalties than do crimes against people.
5.Crimes against public order or morality include disorderly conduct, illegal gambling, prostitution, public drunkenness, and vagrancy.
6.Organized crime consists of large-scale activities by groups of gangsters or racketeers. These activities include gambling, prostitution, the illegal sale of drugs, and loan-sharking.
7.White-collar crime includes criminal acts committed by business and professional people, such as cheating in the payment of taxes, and stock market swindling.
8.From the point of view of procedure, criminal offences may be divided into indictable, summary and «either way» offences. Indictable offences are those which may be tried on indictment , that is, by a judge and a jury. This category includes all the most serious offences. A summary offence is one which is triable summarily, that is, by a magistrates’ court. An «either way» offence is one which is tried summarily or on indictment.
b) Find in the text derivatives to the words: to try, to indict, to punish, to forbid
с) What do the word “it” (§1) and the word “one” (§8) refer to?
c) Find in the text the English equivalents to these word combinations:
неправомерное поведение; преступное бездействие; намерение; преступления среди служащих («беловоротничковые» преступления); поведение, нарушающее общественный порядок; присвоение или растрата имущества; азартная игра, запрещённая законом; суровое наказание; мошенничество на фондовой бирже; преступление, преследуемое по обвинительному акту; подлежащий рассмотрению в суде; преступление, преследуемое в порядке суммарного производства; преступления, преследуемые в альтернативном порядке; бродяжничество
c) Choose the right answer:
What is the main idea of the text?
to explain what the crime is and to determine its main elements
to describe types of criminal offences and elements of the crime
to introduce different classifications of crimes and punishment
to give the definition of the crime, its elements and to introduce different classifications of crimes
What is a crime?
a term that refers to law
conduct permitted by law
misconduct forbidden by law
a term that refers to a particular mental state
How many elements does the crime consist of?
it depends on the type of crime
What are the main ways of classifying crimes?
for statistical purposes
from the point of view of procedure
for statistical purposes and from the point of view of procedure
mens rea and actus reus
d) Fill in the table with the information from the text.
ways of classifying offences
for statistical purposes
e) Retell the text in brief.
Ex.7 a)Read and translate the text.
Main Types of Sentence
Absolute discharge: No financial penalty, no conditions.
Conditional discharge: No financial penalty, but if the offender commits a similar crime in the stated period (e.g., 12 months), he can be brought back and given a more severe sentence for the original offence.
Fine: Up to £ 2,000 at magistrates’ courts, unlimited in the Crown Court.
Probation order: The offender is placed under the supervision of a probation officer for specified period (often 1 or 2 years), who has to have regular contact with him. Other conditions can also be attached, such as that the offender must take medical treatment.
Community service order: It is expressed in hours (between 40 and 240). The offender carries out socially useful tasks, such as helping with the disabled, or decorating elderly people’s houses, at weekends and other spare time.
Suspended sentence of imprisonment: For example, ‘nine months suspended for two years’. If the offender commits another offence within the stated period, the original sentence can (at the discretion of judge or magistrate) be activated, and he can be made to serve it after any sentence imposed for the subsequent offence.
Partly suspended sentence of imprisonment: For example, ‘twelve months imprisonment, six months suspended for two years’. The offender serves some of the sentence immediately. On release, the other part hangs over him like a suspended sentence.
Imprisonment: The offender goes to prison. The usual remission is one-third of the sentence. He will also, in many cases, become eligible to be released on parole after one-third of his sentence. The grant of parole is discretionary.
b) Find in the text the English equivalents to these word combinations: преступление; освобождать под честное слово (условно-досрочно), предоставленный на усмотрение; освобождение; судебный приказ; имеющий право; надзор.
с) Match the English word combinations with their Russian equivalents.
a court order by which an offender will not be sentenced for an offence unless a further offence is committed within a stated period
a punishment in which a person is ordered to pay a sum of money because they have done something illegal or broken a rule
a period of time during which a person who has committed a crime has to obey the law and be supervised by a probation officer, rather than being sent to prison.
unpaid work, intended to be of social use, that an offender is required to do instead of going to prison
a punishment for a crime when a criminal is kept in prison
an act of releasing someone from the custody
a prison sentence which the criminals have to serve if they commit another crime within a specified period of time.
Exercise 9. Complete the statements.
In the Crown Court fine is …….
up to 500 £
Community service order is expressed in ……
The offender can be released from prison after serving……..
1/3 of the sentence
2/3 of the sentence
3/8 of the sentence
half of the sentence
Probation order means to be placed under the supervision of ………. …….. for a specified period of time.
a police officer
a probation officer
Ex. 10: Study the table below. How do you think these compare with sentences in your country? Remember, they are maximum, not average.
In England there are no minimum sentences, except for murder, which carries a penalty of life imprisonment. There are maximum sentences for other crimes. Crimes are first heard by a magistrate who can either pass sentence, or refer the crime to a Crown court with a judge and jury. The most common punishment for crimes — 80 per cent of the total — is a fine. Sentences can be reduced for good behaviour, often by one-third or more. ‘Life’ sentences are rarely more than 14 years, and it would be possible to release prisoners after 7 years. Here are maximum sentences for some crimes:
CrimeMagistrates’ court Crown court
Fine PrisonFine Prison
Burglary£1,000 6 months unlimited 14 years
Grievous bodily harm £1,000 6 months unlimited 5 years
Possession of some drugs £ 500 3 months unlimited 5 years
Common assault £ 200 2 months ————————-
Murder———————— life imprisonment
Ex. 10: Which kind of punishment do you think is suitable for:
1. a woman who poisoned her husband and his girlfriend?
a businessman who did not pay his taxes?
a bank robber?
a drunken driver who killed someone in an accident?
a car thief?
Use this model to answer the questions:
He/ she should be sentenced to … because … .
Ex. 11: Work in pairs. a) Find out in sentences 1-10 what the crime is. Choose a term from the box.
mugging shoplifting vandalism illegal parking football violence murder terrorism rape theft manslaughter
b) Say what punishment or treatment should be given to these criminals.
A well-off woman takes a bottle of perfume from a department store.
A husband kills his wife after finding she has been unfaithful.
A group of men kill five customers in a pub by leaving a bomb there.