реферат по английскому языку



Управление образования администрации города Кунгура

Научное общество учащихся

XIV городской конкурс исследовательских и творческих работ

учащихся «Первые шаги»

Английский язык

«Pottery and porcelain»

Ковина Надежда

Лицей №1

6а класс

Горбунова Татьяна Станиславовна, лицей №1, учитель английского языка.

Кунгур 2014

Contents

1. The title page……………………………………………………………………1

2. Contents…………………………………………………………………………2

3. Introduction……………………………………………………………………..3

4. Part I: History of the appearance of ceramics…………………………………..4

4.1. The emergence of ceramics………………………………………………….4

4.2. The most ancient kinds of ceramics…………………………………………4

4.3. Stoneware ceramics………………………………………………………….5

5. Part II: Ceramic products ……………………………………………………….6

5.1 Porcelain………………………………………………………………………6

5.2 Faience………………………………………………………………………..7

5.3 Brick………………………………………………………………………….7

5.4 Refractory materials………………………………………………………….8

6. Part III : Types of ceramics……………………………………………………..9

6.1 Products with a porous shard…………………………………………………9

6.2 Products with dense shard……………………………………………………9

6.3 Division of ceramic products for constructive purposes……………………..9

6.4 Products of plastic molding, dry pressing and injection……………………..9

7. Part IV: Technology of production of ceramic products………………………10

7.1 Stages of the production of ceramic products……………………………….10

7.2 Clay dough…………………………………………………………………..10

7.3 Additional processing……………………………………………………….10

7.4 Moulding ceramic products…………………………………………………10

7.5 Casting in plaster moulds……………………………………………………11

7.6 Dry products…………………………………………………………………11

8. Part V: Ceramics of the Ural……………………………………………………12

8.1 The pottery of Perm Krai……………………………………………………12

8.2 The Stahl’s Pottery…………………………………………………………..12

8.3Pottery of Kungur…………………………………………………………….12

9. Part VI: Changes to the «Willow Pattern»………………………………………13

10. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………….16

11. Attachment……………………………………………………………………17

12. Literature………………………………………………………………………21

Introduction.

Since ancient times, before our era, people in the home used ceramic products. The word ceramics originates from the Greek and means pottery. Ceramic items from ancient times received by firing clay. Because clay is very common in nature, pottery are widely developed and easily spread in different parts of the world. The first potteries were building materials: brick, tile, economic dishes-plates, pots, jugs.

In our time, op still very relevant ceramic products. In each house there is something of ceramics. I love small figurines of animals. My mom loves ceramic ware. My nephew really like ceramic whistles. In our house there are always new ceramic flower pots.

I like pottery, and so I wanted to know more about it: history, properties, processing and painting on ceramics.

Part I

History of the appearance of ceramics

1.1 Ceramics has been known since antiquity and is perhaps the first man-made material. It was believed that the emergence of ceramics is directly connected with the transition of the rights to a settled way of life, so it happened much later than the dumpster. More recently, the first known examples of ceramics belonged to the upper Palaeolithic (граветтская culture). However, found in 1993 pots of Syanzhendon make 20 thousand years ago. The oldest object of baked clay Dating 29-25 BC. This věstonice Venus stored in the Moravian Museum in Brno.

In the Mesolithic cultures ceramics is used sporadically and usually at a later stage; the most sophisticated examples of Mesolithic ceramics known in the Jomon culture in Japan. In the Neolithic ceramics becomes an integral attribute almost all archaeological cultures (with the exception of the period of the oldest agrarian communities докерамического Neolithic in the middle East, where the transition to a settled way of life occurred before many other technological innovations).

Originally ceramics формовалась manually. The invention of the Potter’s wheel in the third Millennium BC (late eneolith — early bronze age) has greatly speed up and simplify the process of forming the product. In pre-Columbian cultures of the American Indian pottery was made without a Potter’s wheel until the arrival of Europeans.

Certain types of ceramic formed gradually as improving production processes, depending on the properties of raw materials and received treatment conditions.

1.2 The most ancient kinds of ceramics is a variety of vessels, as well as spinning, weaving sinkers and other items. This ceramics different ways improved — deposited relief stamping, прочерчиванием, moulded elements. Vessels received different colors depending on the method of firing. They could veneering, stain or paint ornament cover engobe, a shiny layer (Greek ceramics and Roman Terra sigillata), colored glaze («Гафнеркерамика» Renaissance).

By the end of the XVI century it appeared in Europe majolica (depending on the origin, also often called faience). Having porous shard of containing iron and lime, but white porcelain mass, it was covered with two glazes: opaque, with a high content of tin, and transparent shiny lead-glazed.

Decor wrote on majolica crude glaze before you burn the product at a temperature of about 1000 C. Paint for painting were taken of the same chemical composition that and glaze, but they were an essential part of oxides of metals, which withstand large temperature (so-called refractory colors — blue, green, yellow and purple). Beginning from the XVIII century began to apply the so-called muffle paint applied to the already burning glaze. They are used for porcelain painting.

1.3 In the XVI century in Germany spread manufacture of stone ceramic tableware. White (for example, in Siegburg) or colored (for example, in Rehren), very tight pot consisted of clay mixed with feldspar and other substances. After firing at temperatures 1200-1280 °C stoneware ceramics was getting hard and almost non porous. In the Netherlands made the red stone of ceramics on the model of the Chinese ceramics, and the same feature detects ceramics Беттгера.

Stoneware ceramics also produced Веджвудом in England. Thin faience as a special kind of ceramics with white porous shard, the same is covered with a white glaze, appeared in England in the first half of the XVIII century. Faience depending on the strength crock divided into soft thin faience with high lime content, middle — lower its content and solid — no lime. This last composition and fortress crock often reminds stone ceramic or porcelain.

Part II

Ceramic products

2.1 Porcelain. Porcelain was known in China already in very ancient times, and in Europe it began manufacturing factory method for the first time in Meyssen (1710). Porcelain was received with a strong ignition («burning») plastic materials manufactured by mixing clay, porcelain earth) with powdery feldspar and quartz with a small amount of water. If the firing temperature is not too high, then the form of products stored, only to volume is greatly reduced, because the porcelain «sits» during baking. Simultaneously, the weight (the«crock») is dense (waterproof) and sonorous.

For the manufacture of solid porcelain usually used about 50% of kaolin, 25% of feldspar and 25% quartz. When roasting kaolin first gives constitutional water. He then decomposes on Al2O3 and SiO2, which dissolve in стеклообразно softened feldspar. Further temperature increase feldspar dissolves in increasing quantities of coarse grained quartz. As feldspar enriched silicon dioxide, it is deposited mullite, because with increasing SiO2 content solvent ability feldspar towards муллиту decreases. Therefore ready porcelain consists of a glassy groundmass, which permeated closely interwoven between the needles of mullite and the remaining undissolved grains of quartz (and tiny air bubbles). As a rule, the firing is carried out twice. After the first firing, the so-called «raw firing»going around 900, porcelain put a transparent glaze: received after crude firing more porous shards quickly immersed in глазурную mass — aqueous suspension of kaolin, clay, feldspar and marble. When heated from it formed тугоплавкое glass. The subsequent drying (about 1450) produce a final firing. Often porcelain subjected to yet a third firing in a muffle furnace at red калении after applying paints, i.e. worn out with turpentine finely crushed colored glass. The most stability have paint for acute fire or underglaze paint, applied on neglazurovannyj a crock. However, there is some colour, for which this method is possible. Finally annealed without porcelain glaze called biscuit. Instead of forming of the porcelain paste, based on its plasticity, porcelain mass can be converted into liquid state addition of a minor amount of alkali and cast in the form of plaster. As a result of absorption of water baked plaster form comes a rapid hardening of porcelain products. Porcelain not only for the manufacture of household utensils and art products, but also, and in very large extent, for the manufacture of chemical utensils, and, thanks to its insulating properties — for the manufacture insulators.

From the normal or hard porcelain differs soft-paste porcelain, which produce mainly artistic products. In soft porcelain contains less kaolin and accordingly more «wetlands», for example, feldspar, chalk. This porcelain in accordance with its легкоплавкостью are fired at a lower temperature (usually at 1200-1300) . So easy to make it a multicolored подглазурное painting.

Stone materials like porcelain, are dense sonorous and so solid that is not scratched steel; besides, they are very front in relation to chemical attack. Because they are made of clay, they require lower firing temperature than hard-paste porcelain (1200-1300), do not possess such as porcelain, просвечиваемостью and in most cases are not white, grey, yellow or brown color. They often cover only a thin layer of «salt» glaze, which is formed by the evaporation of salt, бросаемой in microwave; due to that on the surface of such products is deposited glassy dual sodium silicate. In the chemical industry is very often used unglazed products of stone material.

Thin stone material is used for the manufacture of vases and other artistic items in architecture for the manufacture of reliefs and decoration of facades. Of stone material manufactured grey painted with blue paint old German vessels (cups etc). Examples of products from the rough brown stone material can serve as water and sewage pipes, and «metlahskie tiles». In the chemical industry used many vessels made of brown stone material: coils, cooling pipes, baths and other.

2.2 Faience, as porcelain, white, or almost white, but it is softer, so that the steel leave scratches on it; he break easier, порист, so in most cases it should be covered with glaze. Faience produced from a mixture of clay, quartz, alkali and minium, sometimes add colouring oxides. Faience fired twice: first without the glaze from 1200-1300 (crude firing, while slightly weaker with icing (final roasting). From fine porcelain make sinks, bathtubs, etc. Some varieties faience often painted titanium acid in a pale cream color (sinks). Examples of unglazed earthenware serve vessels of clay, clay tube etc.

Faience has dirty-grey porous break. Therefore, it glaze, which, thanks to the addition of tin dioxide is white and opaque. Earlier faience often used for making cheap-ware; however, faience made Веджвудом in England, almost entirely replaced the normal faience of the household. A more subtle faience suitable for artistic ceramics. According to its properties фаянсу approaching majolica, covered with glaze.

Ordinary pottery, such as flower pots, pottery, also have a porous break. They are glaze containing mostly lead; it is painted usually added to it oxides of metals. Iron oxide gives yellow, and together with manganese dioxide — brown color; copper glaze colors green.

2.3 Brick. Brick molded from clay and then are fired. Because clay iron oxide bricks mostly painted in red color. Brick has large porosity, because firing is carried out at a relatively low temperature. Badly burnt, thick and very sturdy brick is called clinker.

2.4 Refractory materials. «Refractory» call these materials that is not melting, can withstand the high temperatures (at least 1600). The most commonly used refractory material is fireclay, which consists of a mixture of two types of clays: burnt to the sintering, perhaps more refractory clay (actually fireclay) and red plastic clays (linking clay). There are special deposits of clay, which is being used primarily for the manufacture of fireclay. Fireclay, which usually contains about 42-45% Al2O3 and 50-54% SiO2, primarily used for lining furnaces, high-temperature furnaces and recuperators. For coke-oven, ceramic furnaces and furnaces for the steel industry (for example, oven Siemens — Martin) are used in most cases (for the first time obtained in England) silica. His prepare firing of coarse grained quartz sand, mixed with a small amount of lime mass or clay. Clay contains silica 15-17% Al2O3 and 80-83% SiO2. He soften at 1350, however melts only 1650 above. Refractory properties exceeds lime silica and silica stone (with the content of 1,5-4% CaO, from 0.3 to 2% Al2O3 and 94-96% SiO2), which melts only when 1700-1750. It and is used primarily in the furnaces of the Siemens — Martin. Greater fire resistance have the so-called силлиманиты, which is obtained by firing at high temperature sillimanite, цианита or andalusite (minerals single-ended Al2 SiO5, but different internal structure), which formed as a result mullite, which as already mentioned is an integral part of hard porcelain.

Of refractory substances, not containing or containing SiO2 it in very small quantities, should be called bauxite, динамидон, магнизит and dolomite. High heat-resistant properties, magnesium, zirconium dioxide and mainly graphite (in the absence of air).

Part III

Types of ceramics

3.1 For products with a porous shard include products with water absorption crock 8-10% by mass. They are opaque, pressurized water flows. Pour include walling, roofing products, drainage pipes, terracotta* and so on, to porous glazed — facing bricks and tiles, tiles, sanitary and construction, earthenware products.

Of the product from which through crock have water absorption 3-10%, do not let the water, in a break have a shiny surface. These include clinker brick, floor tiles and glazed products.

To reduce the permeability of products, finishing their surface and protection from the external environment of the use of glaze (glass-like coating) and engobes (ceramic decorative coating).

3.2 The products of coarse ceramics pottery has a fracture of a granular structure. The majority of construction of ceramic building bricks, tiles, sewage pipes and so on — are products of the coarse ceramics. The building will be porous, as, for example, faience.

*Terrakota — unglazed clay products with a porous coarse-grained shard.

facing glazed tiles and bricks, which can withstand acid, porcelain. Crock porcelain, besides, a little Shine through.

3.3 For constructive purposes ceramic products are divided on the wall (brick, ceramic stones, blocks, panels), roofing (tiles clay), floor (hollow stones, beams, slabs and coating of ceramic stones), for facing facades of buildings (brick and stone ceramic face, carpet ceramics, architectural and artistic details, tile facade, podokonnye plum, small-sized tiles), for the inner lining (floor tiles, glazed tiles and fittings to them — rods, angles, belts), aggregates for light concrete (agloporit, keramzit, «keramdor»), ceramic pipes sewage and drainage, road brick, sanitary-technical (kitchen tables, tubs, toilets), acid-resistant bricks, tiles, pipes and fittings for them, refractories and insulation (perlite ceramics, diatomaceous and others).

3.4 The method of molding distinguish products of plastic molding, dry pressing and injection molding. The plastic molding products include corpulent brick ceramic, lightweight construction, ceramic stones and other products dry pressing — hollow brick ceramic, facing tiles, floor tiles (metlahskie) and others, to targeted casting — majolica tiles, facade, carpets, sanitary-technical and other.

Part IV

Technology of production of ceramic products.

4.1 Manufacture of ceramic products includes several stages: preparation testoobraznoj masses, forming products, application of the decoration, drying, roasting in the oven.

4.2 Clay dough should be homogeneous on structure, without lamination and air bubbles evenly mixed with additives, humidified up to the necessary plasticity, is able to take one or the other form with little pressure. Fitness clay does not stick to your hands, its individual pieces can easily be connected. There are several ways of preparation of a clay test. One of them is the following: the dry and fragmented clay pour with plenty of water, stir up of fluid status, pass through a sieve into a clean container. Clay settles on the bottom. Then the excess water is removed by evaporation or by means of a pump. In summer the water easily evaporate in a wider capacity.

4.3 Before molding clay mass undergoes additional processing: from her remove air bubbles and give it a homogeneous structure.

4.4 Forming of ceramic products is carried out in various ways: plastic molding, molding (using gypsum forms), pressing, hot moulding under pressure.

The most frequently used methods of plastic molding: manual — «by hand» (in the manufacture of fine art products — flowers, decorations and so on); forming «sausages»; plaster moulds modeling; plaster moulds using a template; on a Potter’s wheel.

Potter’s wheel allows you to create symmetric, uniformly expanding or shrinking vessels of various shapes. It consists of an iron vertical rod attached to the desktop, and two wooden wheels — large, the lower diameter 95-105 cm), and small, in the upper (diameter of 30 to 40 cm). Potter’s wheel is driven by the rotation of the foot of the lower circle. The upper circle is directly working place which is formed into the product. In this case you need some tools: wooden Rezan, a piece of flat rubber, greckaya sponge, a metal stick, pieces of skin and Plexiglas.

Work on the Potter’s wheel requires a virtuoso mastery. Crude clay, who was thrown on the Potter’s wheel, with wet hands are pulled into the cone. Pressing down on him hand, Gonchar lowers the weight down. This is repeated several times (to align the texture of clay masses). Elongated whom as a result of the pressure of the thumb is turned into a hollow cylinder. Skipping the cylinder wall between two fingers, grinds body and neck of the product. Using a wooden torch mass give the necessary form. During formation of hands should periodically moisten with water, to strengthen slip of the fingers. Giving the product a complete form, smooth down his wet sponge and a piece of rubber, after which a thin wire or string of a cut with a Potter’s wheel and put the drying — most often in the air. Up to 19-20 % humidity product establish the center of the upper circle, attaching a piece of clay, and reformats the relevant instruments; grinds a metal hook, smooth down a wet sponge, Polish plexiglass. If the product consists of several parts, they are glued. Next is the decorating.

4.5 Casting in plaster moulds based on the ability of gypsum absorb moisture. Liquefied clay mass, the so-called slip, pour in a plaster form, moisture absorbed and after some time the walls of the mold is formed even layer of clay. Weight gradually hardens, the dimensions of the product to be cast reduced and the resulting cake mix easily separated from the form. These products are of friable and give greater shrinkage.

4.6 The next stage in the production of ceramics is drying. In freshly molded product contains from 22 up to 30 % moisture — depending on the method of formation. The drying process at different structures of the mass passes differently: than fatter clay, the longer it is dried. When unequal density crock shrinkage is uneven, leading to the emergence of cracks and deformation. The form of the product is also of importance: the larger the size, the faster it dries. During the drying should not be draughts. First, the product is pre-drying, with 19 % moisture content — decorated, and then comes the final drying.

Part V

Ceramics of the Urals

5.1 The Perm State Arts Gallery is one of the most important and big Museums in the Ural region. The Gallery’s collection counts about 43.000 items including those belonging to national and Western European artistic schools, styles and trends of XV-XXI centuries. Lovers of arts may find here paintings, drawings, pieces of sculpture, ornamental, decorated and applied pieces of arts, as well as folk-made ones. Collections include Ancient Greek and Egyptian ceramics, Tibetan bronze, samples of applied arts from Japan, India and China. The Perm State Arts Gallery was open in 1922. Today it takes a place within the precincts of the former Savior’s Transfiguration Cathedral, which itself is a piece of arts, a monument of architecture of the XIX century.

5.2 Brothers, Thomas and Isaac Stahl revived Stahl’s Pottery in the mid-1930s. They used the potting skills they had learned from their father, Charles Stahl, in the late nineteenth century. Charles Stahl’s pottery site was located along the Indian Creek in the village of Powder Valley, Pennsylvania.The Stahl brothers produced both utilitarian and decorative redware pottery from the years, 1934 until 1950.“Redware” pottery was named for the distinctive color produced from local sources of clay.Artist Carrie Stahl Schultz, Thomas’ daughter, decorated many of the sgraffito plates made by Thomas and Isaac.Russell Stahl, apprenticed as a potter under his Father, Isaac.After 1950, Russell ran the pottery and fired the kiln for the last time in 1956.

5.3 Front of the candy store, on the crossroads of Ulitsa Oktyabrskaya and Ulitsa Lenina, you can see a small pottery shop. Here you can buy crafts made of stone, wood, willow, birch bark, textiles and Kungur ceramics, which are famous all over Russia.Many of these exponate end up in different regions of Russia and the master who build them are participating to different fairs or exhibitions.

Part VI

Changes to the «Willow Pattern»

The term «Willow» is applied in a general way to many of the copies of the blue-and-white porcelain imported into England from China during the last half of the eighteenth century,  Since the improvement of British pottery the trade with China naturally ceased.

 For a century and a half the «Willow Pattern» has been the stock-pattern of nearly every British Pottery manufacturer, and although at times its popularity has waned, it has eventually returned to favour, and now is again at the apex of its popularity.

 Of the modern «Willow» the Burleigh reproduction of Enoch Wood’s plate is unequalled. The Blue is attractive and pleasing and the engraving has been executed by the finest artists of the day and has been in continual production since 1922.

 The original did not have the «Apple-tree» or the two Doves these being added later.  Otherwise the differences are slight and mainly in the treatment or the fretted border, either a lattice work or conventional butterfly being used, and details of the fence in the foreground differing.

 The original Chinese Willow, Minton copied, had no bridge with people crossing over, and it is not sure whether the stories connected with it originated in China or England. (Probably England, because the main components of the story were not included on the original plate.)

The Willow Legend 

There was once a Mandarin who had a beautiful daughter, Koong-se. He employed a secretary, Chang who, while he was attending to his master’s accounts, fell in love with Koong-se, much to the anger of the Mandarin, who regarded the secretary as unworthy of his daughter.

The secretary was banished and a fence constructed around the gardens of the Mandarin’s estate so that Chang could not see his daughter and Koong-se could only walk in the gardens and to the water’s edge.

One day a shell fitted with sails containing a poem, and a bead which Koong-se had given to Chang, floated to the water’s edge. Koong-se knew that her lover was not far away.

She was soon dismayed to learn that she had been betrothed to Ta-jin, a noble warrior Duke. She was full of despair when it was announced that her future husband, the noble Duke, was arriving, bearing a gift of jewels to celebrate his betrothal.

However, after the banquet, borrowing the robes of a servant, Chang passed through the guests unseen and came to Koong-se’s room. They embraced and vowed to run away together. The Mandarin, the Duke, the guests, and all the servants had drunk so much wine that the couple almost got away without detection, but Koong-se’s father saw her at the last minute and gave chase across the bridge.

The couple escaped and stayed with the maid that Koong-se’s father had dismissed for conspiring with the lovers. Koong-se had given the casket of jewels to Chang and the Mandarin, who was also a magistrate, swore that he would use the jewels as a pretext to execute Chang when he caught him.

One night the Mandarin’s spies reported that a man was hiding in a house by the river and the Mandarin’s guards raided the house. But Chang had jumped into the ragging torrent and Koong-se thought that he had drowned.

Some days later the guards returned to search the house again. While Koong-se’s maid talked to them, Chang came by boat to the window and took Koong-se away to safety.

They settled on a distant island, and over the years Chang became famous for his writings. This was to prove his undoing. The Mandarin heard about him and sent guards to destroy him. Chang was put to the sword and Koong-se set fire to the house while she was still inside.

Thus they both perished and the gods, touched by their love, immortalised them as two doves, eternally flying together in the sky.

Conclusion.

Knowledge for the manufacture of ceramics listed in this work may be useful to me on many subjects such as history, geography, chemistry, art, physics, and technology. History lessons I will be useful knowledge by date of ceramics manufacture, technology of manufacturing the ceramics of the ancient people, and process changes in connection with the development and improvement of society. At geography lessons I will be useful knowledge about the locations of manufacture and the manufacture of ceramics. Places of its production of materials for the manufacture of ceramic products. The location of large industrial objects in the manufacturing of ceramics, about the architectural characteristics of cities. At chemistry lessons can be useful knowledge about the chemical composition of the ceramics. What chemical elements is material for the manufacture of ceramic products for processing and decoration of ceramics. On fine arts lessons I will need knowledge on types of ceramic painting, to national traditions of painting. The study of physics, I will be useful knowledge about the properties of firm breeds, including clay and so on. In technology lessons me will be used knowledge on the formation of ceramic products, means of plastic formation, the methods of decoration, production technologies of ceramic products. Working paper on «Ceramics», I learned a lot of new, interesting and great information on the history of ceramics, ceramic products. I was very attracted by the technology of manufacturing of ceramics. I am very pleased that my homeland Ural engaged in manufacturing, improvement and invention of ceramic products. It is very interesting that ceramics is used not only as household items and jewelry, but also in such serious industrial areas as medicine, architecture, construction.

Attachment

Examples of products from ceramics

Porcelain

Museums of ceramic products.

Archaeological Museum of Ceramics founded in 1937 in Athens.

Gardiner Museum was founded in 1984 in Canada.

The national ceramics Museum or the Museum of Sevres Porcelain was founded in 1824.

Literature

Bubbico Giovanna «Ceramics: machinery, materials», Moscow, Niola-press, 2009

Scott Marilyn «Ceramics. Encyclopedia», Moscow, Art-Rodnik, 2012

http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%97%D0%B0%D0%B3%D0%BB%D0%B0%D0%B2%D0%BD%D0%B0%D1%8F_%D1%81%D1%82%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%86%D0%B0






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