Пособие для АК



Федеральное агентство образования и науки РФ

ФГОУ СПО Уральский государственный колледж им. И.И. Ползунова

Методическое пособие

по развития лексических навыков в области профессионально-ориентированного общение на английском языке по специальности

«Аналитический контроль качества химических соединений»

Екатеринбург, 2009 г.

Пояснительная записка

Данное пособие предназначено для работы со студентами, обучающимися по специальности «Аналитический контроль качества химических соединений», и ставит своей целью подготовить их к чтению и переводу соответствующей технической литературы на английском языке, а также сформировать базовые навыки и умения для устного общения на языке по данной специальности.

Пособие содержит адаптированные и оригинальные тексты из иностранных журналов и научно-технической литературы, а также тексты, переведенные с русского на английский язык. Тематика текстов следующая: общая и неорганическая химия, правила чтения химических формул и уравнений, химическая посуда и оборудование химической лаборатории, описание химических элементов, аналитическая химия, известные химики. Содержание текстов соответствует программам специальных дисциплин, и по своей сложности данные тексты предназначены для студентов IV курса, имеющих базовые знания по дисциплине «Английский язык». В конце пособия предлагается итоговый тест на контроль уровня сформированности навыков по окончанию курса.

Тексты снабжены упражнениями, рассчитанными на активизацию лексического и грамматического материала. Выбор упражнений и их последовательность обусловлены характером текстов. К текстам даются пояснения, облегчающие понимание и перевод отдельных мест, представляющих определенную языковую трудность.

Пособие может быть использовано для самостоятельной работы студентов.

Unit 1. CHEMISTRY: KEY TO PROGRESS AND ABUNDANCE

The science of chemistry includes a study of properties, composition, and structure of matter, the changes in structure and composition which matter undergoes, and the accompanying energy changes.

The close links between science and industry enabled the chemical industry to make great progress.

Zelinsky’s works formed the basis for the synthesizing of a large number of new chemical compounds. These compounds are now counted in thousands, and they are extremely important in the economy. Scientists evolved an original method of extracting phenol and acetone simultaneously from benzene and propylene. Phenol and acetone are needed for the manufacture of plastics, textile fibres, organic glass and other chemical products.

Scientists are making a major contribution to the production of aniline dyes, and many new dyes have been evolved with their help.

The research of the scientists has revealed the physical and physico-chemical conditions necessary for the industrial production and processing of polymeric materials.

The theory of chain reactions is a major discovery of our time. The development of this theory is linked with the name of the scientist Semyonov, a Nobel Prize winner.

VOCABULARY

chemistry — химияscience — наукаto include включатьproperty — свойствоcompositionсостав

matterматерия

to undergoподвергаться

accompanyingсопутствующие

energy changesпреобразование энергии

researchисследование

developmentразвитие enableдавать возможность

to set up — основывать

branch — отрасль

close links – тесная synthesizing синтез

compoundсоединение

to evolveразрабатывать

simultaneouslyодновременно

manufactureпроизводство

textile fibresтекстильные волокна

contributionвклад aniline dyesанилиновые красители

to revealоткрывать, показывать

conditionусловие

processing — обработка

chain reactionцепная реакция

discovery — открытие

to achieveдостигать

FIELDS OF CHEMISTRY

The field of chemistry is now a very large one. There are more than 30 different branches of chemistry. Some of the better known fields are inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, biological chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, nuclear chemistry, industrial chemistry, colloidal chemistry, and electrochemistry.

Inorganic chemistry. It was originally considered that the field of inorganic chemistry consists of the study of materials not derived from living organisms|. However it now includes all substances other than the hydrocarbons and their derivatives.

Organic chemistry. At one time it was thought that all substances found in plants and animals could be made only by using part of a living plant or animal. The study of these substances, most of which contain carbon was therefore called organic chemistry. It is now known that this idea is quite wrong, for in 1828 F. Wohler made an «organic» substance using a simple laboratory process.

Organic chemistry now merely means the chemistry of carbon compounds.

Physical chemistry is concerned with those parts of chemistry which are closely linked with physics as, for in stance, the behaviour of substances when a current of electricity is passed through them.

Electrochemistry is concerned with the relation between electrical energy and chemical change. Electrolysis is the process whereby electrical energy causes a chemical change in the conducting medium, which usually is a solution or a molten substance. The process is generally used as a method of deposition metals from a solution.

Magnetochemistry is the study of behaviour of a chemical substance in the presence of a magnetic field. A paramagnetic substance, i.e. one having unpaired electrons is drawn into a magnetic field. Diamagnetic substances, i.e. those having no unpaired electrons, are repelled by a magnetic field.

Biochemistry. Just as the physical chemist works on the boundaries between physics and chemistry, so the biochemist works on the boundaries between biology and chemistry. Much of the work of the biochemist is concerned with foodstuffs and, medicines. The medicines known as antibiotics, of which penicillin is an early example, were prepared by biochemists.

VOCABULARY

field – область, отрасль

nuclear chemistry – ядерная химия

It was … considered (thought) – предполагали, считали

to consistсостоять из

to deriveпроисходить от

to includeвключать, содержать в себе hydrocarbonуглеводород

substance — вещество

to contain – содержать

for instance — например

behaviour — поведение

current of electricityэлектрический ток

relationсоотношение, зависимость

wherebyпосредством которого

to causeвызывать

conducting mediumпроводящая среда

solutionраствор

moltenрасплавленный

method of deposition metals – метод осаждения металлов

to draw (drew, drawn) – тянуть

to repel — отталкиваться

boundary — граница

EXERCISES

Give English equivalents for these words.

отрасль

развитие

исследование

условие

выделение

открытие

состав

свойство

наука

производство

одновременно

достигать

II.Answer the questions.

Which branch of chemistry deals with the study of materials not derived from living organisms?

Which branch of chemistry studies the behaviour of a chemical substance in the presence of a magnetic field?

What is the study of substances containing carbon called?

What other branches of chemistry do you know?

By whom were antibiotics prepared?

III.Fill in the gaps with suitable words given below.

Diamagnetic substances are … by a magnetic field.

Much of the work of the biochemist is concerned with . . . and medicines.

… is the process whereby electrical energy causes a chemical change in the conducting medium.

Electrolysis is generally used as a method of deposition of metals from ….

The theory of … reactions is a major discovery of our time.

The close links between the science and industry … the chemical industry to make great progress.

Zelinsky’s works formed the basis for the synthesizing of a large number of new chemical … .

Scientists are making a major contribution to … of aniline dyes.

There are more than 30 different . . . of chemistry.

Diamagnetic substances have no … electrons.

Production, repelled, unpaired, solution, foodstuffs, compounds, enabled, branches, electrolysis, chain.

IV.Make up sentences out of these words.

And, phenol, an original method, acetone, our scientists, simultaneously, benzene, and, evolved, from, extracting, propylene, of.

Substance, field, the study, in the presence, behaviour, chemical, magnetochemistry, of, of, is, a, of, a, magnetic.

World-wide, this, to, scientists, recognition, much, due, research, credit, our, is, whose, won, has.

Other, needed, manufacture, textile fibers, plastics, acetone, and, are, organic glass, for, the, products, of, and, chemical, phenol.

Physics, chemistry, parts, linked, which, concerned, are, closely, with, with, physical, chemistry, is, those, of.

V.Translate into English.

1) Наши ученые разработали новый метод обработки металлов.

2) Биохимики внесли большой вклад в производство антибиотиков.

3) Электрохимия связана с изучением отношений между электрической энергией и химическими изменениями.

4) Они не знают состава этого соединения.

5) Этот ученый определил физические и физико-химические условия необходимые для промышленного производства и обработки полимерных материалов.

Unit 2. SYMBOLS, FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS

Each of the 105 presently known chemical elements is given a symbol which usually is derived from the name of the element. The symbol of oxygen is O, of hydrogen is H, of helium He, of copper Cu, of sodium Na, of plutonium Pu. Groups of symbols called formulas are used to designate compounds. The formula for water is H2O, for carbon dioxide CO2, for sulphuric acid H2SO4.These symbols and formulas are used to indicate chemical fractions. For example:

2H2O → 2H2 + O2 (statement: water decomposes to form hydrogen and oxygen)

VOCABULARY

symbolсимвол equationуравнение presentlyв настоящее время to deriveпроисходить copper (Cu) — медь sodium (Na) – натрий to designateобозначать

carbon dioxide C02двуокись углерода sulphuric acid H2S04серная кислота to indicateуказывать, означать statementформулировка to decomposeразлагаться (на составные части)

INORGANIC MOLECULES AND COMPOUNDS

Simple diatomic molecules of a single element are designated by the symbol for the element with a subscript 2, indicating that it contains 2 atoms. Thus the hydrogen molecule is H2; the nitrogen molecule, N2; and the oxygen molecule, O2. Polyatomic molecules of a single element are designated by the symbol for the element with a numerical subscript corresponding to the number of atoms in the molecule. Examples are the phosphorus molecule, P4, and the sulphur molecule, S8.

Diatomic covalent molecules, containing unlike elements are given similar designation. The formula for hydrogen chloride is HCl. The more electropositive element is always designated first in the formula.

For polyatomic covalent molecules containing unlike elements, numerical subscriptions are used to designate number of atoms of each element present in the molecule, for example, water, H2O. Again, as in diatomic molecules, more electropositive element is placed first in the formula.

VOCABULARY

moleculeмолекула

diatomicдвухатомный

singleединичный

subscriptподстрочный индекс

polyatomic — многоатомный

numerical – числовой

corresponding — соответствующий

sulphur – cepa

covalent — ковалентный

unlikеразличный

similar – подобный

hydrogen chloride — хлористый водопровод

electropositive — электроположительный

PERIODIC LAW

One of the cornerstones of modern chemical theory isthe Periodic Law. It can be simply stated as follows: The properties of the elements are a periodic function of the nuclear charges of their atoms.

In 1869 Mendeleyev arrived at the conclusion that by the arrangement of the elements in order of increasing atomic weight the similarity and periodicity of properties of various, valence groups of the elements were clearly delineated.

There were several vacant spaces in Mendeleyev’s table which led him to predict the existence of six undiscovered elements, (scandium, gallium, germanium, polonium etc). His confidence in the new classification was clearly expressed in the predictions which he made of the chemical properties of these missing elements. And within fifteen years gallium, scandium and germanium were discovered.

Although this table has been modified hundreds of times, it has withstood the onslaught of all new facts. Isotopes, rare gases, atomic numbers, and electron configurations have only strengthened the idea of the periodicity of the properties of the elements.

VOCABULARY

Periodic Lawпериодический закон

cornerstoneкраеугольный камень

to stateформулировать

as followsследующим образом

nuclear charge – ядерный заряд

to arrive at a conclusion – прийти к заключению

arrangement – расположение

in order of increasing atomic weight – в порядке возрастания атомного веса

similarity [‘simiylaeriti] cxofl-

valence group – валентная группа

to delineate — очерчивать

vacant spaceсвободное место

to predictпредсказывать

existenceсуществование

confidence — уверенность

to express – выражать

predictionпредсказание

missingотсутствующий

withinв течение

to modifyвидоизменять

to withstandвыдерживать

onslaughtпоявление

isotopeизотоп

rare gases – редкие газы

electron configuration – электронная конфигурация

to strengthen — укреплять

EXERCISES

I. Answer the questions.

How many chemical elements are there now?

What is the symbol of Manganese?

What is a symbol usually derived from?

What does a subscript show?

What element is always designated first in the formula?

When did Mendeleyev discover the periodic law?

How can the Periodic Law be simply stated?

What elements were discovered after Mendeleyev modified the table?

Give some examples of polyatomic molecules of single elements.

10)What are simple diatomic molecules of a single element designated by?

True or false?

Symbols and formulas are used to indicate chemical reactions.

Groups of symbols are called equations.



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