Учебное пособие для асои



Министерство сельского хозяйства Российской Федерации

Сорочинский ветеринарный техникум – филиал

федерального государственного бюджетного образовательного учреждения

высшего профессионального образования

«Оренбургский государственный аграрный университет»

Т. Н. Гаврилова

АВТОМАТИЗИРОВАННЫЕ СИСТЕМЫ ОБРАБОТКИ

ИНФОМАЦИИ И УПРАВЛЕНИЯ

Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов 3 курса, обучающихся по специальности 230103 «Автоматизированные системы обработки информации и управления»

Сорочинск

2011 г.

Гаврилова Т. Н.

Автоматизированные системы обработки информации и управления: учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов техникумов.

Учебное пособие содержит лексический минимум и тексты для чтения различных уровней сложности для проверки знаний и умений по грамматике, лексике, речевой деятельности.

Учебное пособие предназначено для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы, для текущего контроля студентов 3 курса, обучающихся по специальности 230103 «Автоматизированные системы обработки информации и управления».

Рассмотрено и одобрено на заседании методического совета Сорочинского ветеринарного техникума – филиала федерального государственного бюджетного образовательного учреждения высшего профессионального образования «Оренбургский государственный аграрный университет».

Протокол № 2 от 10 ноября 2011 г.

Содержание

Введение ………………………………………………………..………………4

Unit 1

Information-dependent society…………………………..………………..……..5

Unit 2

History of computers..………………………………………..………….….….14

Unit 3

Data processing concepts………………………………………………………..23

Unit 4

Computer systems: an overview……………………………………..……..…..30

Лексический минимум…………………………………………………..…….39

Литература………………………………………………………………

Введение

Настоящее пособие предназначено для студентов средне-специальных учебных заведений, обучающихся по специальностям: 230103 «Автоматизированные системы обработки информации и управления» и 230401 «Информационные системы (по отраслям).

Цель пособия оказать помощь студентам:

— в приобретении навыков чтения и обсуждения текстов;

— в накоплении необходимого словарного минимума;

— в усвоении и закреплении грамматического материала.

Пособие состоит из четырех частей:

— «Общество, зависимое от информации».

— «История компьютеров».

— «Понятие обработки информации».

— «Компьютерные системы».

Каждая часть заканчивается тестами для повторения и контроля лексических и грамматических тем. Наиболее часто употребляемые термины, связанные с указанной специализацией, внесены в лексический минимум, прилагаемый в конце пособия.

Содержание пособия направлено на повышение эффективности профессионально-ориентированного изучения иностранного языка и на дальнейшее совершенствование приобретенных знаний.

Unit 1

INFORMATION-DEPENDENT SOCIETY

Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 1.

computer literacy — компьютерная грамотность

problem-solving device — устройство, обеспечивающее решение задачи

be aware of — понимать, сознавать

opportunity — возможность

basics — основы

application — применение; использование

to restate — пересмотреть, переосмыслить

significant — значительный

achievements — достижения

computing — вычисление; счет; работа на компьютере

to embrace — охватывать

dimension — измерение

instruction — команда, инструкция, указание

to direct the operation — направлять работу

to process — обрабатывать

data processing system — система обработки данных

Прочтите текст и скажите, как вы понимаете термины «информационное общество» и «компьютерная грамотность».

Text 1. COMPUTER LITERACY

Informed citizens of our information-dependent society should be computer-literate, which means that they should be able to use computers as everyday problem-solving devices. They should be aware of the potential of computers to influence the quality of life.

There was a time when only privileged people had an opportunity to learn the basics, called the three R’s: reading, writing, and arithmetics. Now, as we are quickly becoming an information-becoming society, it is time to restate this right as the right to learn reading, writing and computing. There is little doubt that computers and their many applications are among the most significant technical achievements of the century. They bring with them both economic and social changes. “Computing” is a concept that embraces not only the old third R, arithmetics, but also a new idea — computer literacy.

In an information society a person who is computer-literate need not be an expert on the design of computers. He needn’t even know much about how to prepare programs which are the instructions that direct the operations of computers. All of us are already on the way to becoming computer-literate. Just think of your everyday life. If you receive a subscription magazine in the post-office, it is probably addressed to you by a computer. If you buy something with a bank credit card or pay a bill by check, computers help you process the information. When you check out at the counter of your store, a computer assists the checkout clerk and the store manager. When you visit your doctor, your schedules and bills and special services, such as laboratory tests, are prepared by computer. Many actions that you have taken or observed have much in common. Each relates to some aspect of a data processing system.

3. Просмотрите текст 1 еще раз. Ответьте на вопросы, используя информацию текста.

1. What does “a computer-literate person” mean? 2. Are you aware of the potential of computers to influence your life? 3.What do the people mean by “the basics”? 4. What is the role of computers in our society? 5. What is “computing’? 6. What is a program? 7. Prove that we all are on the way to becoming computer-literate. 8. Give examples of using computers in everyday life.

Прочтите, переведите и запомните следующие выражения:

An information-dependent society; a computer-literate citizen; an everyday problem-solving device; to be aware; to influence the quality of life; to have an opportunity; to learn the basics; to learn computing; the most significant technical achievements; to embrace computer literacy; to prepare programs; to direct the operations of a computer; to be on the way of becoming computer-literate; to process information; to have much in common; a data processing system.

Вспомните образование и случаи употребления The Past Simple Tense.

А. Назовите три формы следующих неправильных глаголов:

То be; to have; to mean; to learn; to become; to bring; to know; to think; to buy; to pay; to take; to do; to begin; to give; to make; to keep; to get; to read; to show.

Б. Преобразуйте следующие предложения в Past Simple.

1. Many people have an opportunity to use computers. 2. There is no doubt that computers solve problems very quickly. 3. Instructions direct the operation of a computer. 4. Computers bring with them both economic and social changes. 5. Computing embraces not only arithmetics, but also computer literacy. 6. It is well known that computers prepare laboratory tests. 7. Those persons are computer literate and think of buying a new computer. 8. They receive a subscription magazine once a month. 9. My mother is ill and visits her doctor every other day. 10. Experts know much about how to prepare programs.

Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 2

intricate — сложный, запутанный,

electronic circuit — электронная цепь, схема

to operate switches — приводить в действие переключатели

to store numbers — запоминать числа

to manipulate — управлять; обращаться; преобразовывать

to input / to feed in — вводить (информацию)

to turn on = to switch on — включать

to turn off = to switch off — выключать

to process data — обрабатывать данные

to supply — подавать, вводить, снабжать, обеспечивать

addition — сложение

subtraction — вычитание

division — деление

multiplication — умножение

exponentiation — возведение в степень

user — пользователь

input device — устройство ввода

disk drive — дисковое запоминающее устройство, дисковод

tape drive — запоминающее устройство на магнитной ленте

cathode-ray tube — электроннолучевая трубка

to make decisions — принимать решения

instantaneously — мгновенно, немедленно

Прочтите текст 2 и скажите, что такое компьютер и каковы его основные функции.

Text 2. WHAT IS A COMPUTER?

A computer is a machine with an intricate network of electronic circuits, that operate switches or magnetize tiny metal cores. The switches, like the cores, are capable of being in one or two possible states, that is, on or off; magnetized or demagnetized. The machine is capable of storing and manipulating numbers, letters, and characters (symbols).

The basic idea of a computer is that we can make the machine do what we want by inputting signals that turn certain switches on and turn others off, or magnetize or do not magnetize the cores.

The basic job of computers is processing of information. For this reason computers can be defined as devices which accept information in the form of instructions, called a program, and characters, called data, perform mathematical and / or logical operations on the information, and then-supply results of these operations. The program, or part of it, which tells the computers what to do and the data, which provide the information needed to solve the problem, are kept inside the computer in a place called memory.

It is considered that computers have many remarkable powers. However most computers, whether large or small, have three basic capabilities.

First, computers have circuits for performing arithmetic operations, such as: addition, subtraction, division, multiplication and exponentiation.

Second, computers have a means of communicating with the user. After all, if we couldn’t feed information in and get results back, these machines wouldn’t be of much use. Some of the most common methods of inputting information are to use terminals, diskettes, disks and magnetic tapes. The computer’s input device (a disk drive or tape drive) reads the information into the computer. For outputting information two common devices used are: a printer, printing the new information on paper, and a cathode-ray-tube display, which shows the results on a TV-like screen.

Third, computers have circuits which can make decisions. The kinds of decisions which computer circuits can make are not of the type: “Who would win the war between two countries?” or “Who is the richest person in the world?” Unfortunately, the computer can only decide three things, namely: Is one number less than another? Are two numbers equal? and, Is one number greater than another?

A computer can solve a series of problems and make thousands of logical decisions without becoming tired. It can find the solution to a problem in a fraction of the time it takes a human being to do the job.

A computer can replace people in dull, routine tasks, but it works according to the instructions given to it. There are times when a computer seems to operate like a mechanical ‘brain’, but its achievements are limited by the minds of human beings. A computer cannot do anything unless a person tells it what to do and gives it the necessary information; but because electric pulses can move at the speed of light, a computer can carry out great numbers of arithmetic-logical operations almost instantaneously. A person can do the same, but in many cases that person would be dead long before the job was finished.

Переведите текст. Ответьте на вопросы, используя информацию текста.

1. What is a computer? 2. What are the two possible states of the switches? 3. What are the main functions of a computer? 4. In what way can we make the computer do what we want? 5. What is the basic task of a computer? 6. In what form does a computer accept information? 7. What is a program? 8. What are data? 9. What is memory? 10. What three basic capabilities have computers? 11. What are the ways of inputting information into the computer? 12. What is the function of an input device? 13. What devices are used for outputting information? 14. What decisions can the computer make? 15. What are the computer’s achievements limited by?

9. Найдите в тексте 2 английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:

Сложная сеть электронных цепей; управлять (приводить в действие) переключателями; возможные состояния; хранить (запоминать) числа; обрабатывать символы; посредством ввода сигналов; включать; выключать; размагничивать сердечники; обработка информации; информация в виде команд; символы, называемые данными; выполнять математические операции; выдавать результаты; обеспечивать необходимую информацию; иметь замечательные возможности; основные свойства; сложение, вычитание, деление, умножение; возведение в степень; средства для общения с пользователем; устройство ввода; дисковод; считывать информацию; вывод информации; катодно-лучевая трубка; принимать решения; выполнять тысячи логических операций; без устали; находить решение задачи; значительно меньший промежуток времени; человек; нудная рутинная работа; в соответствии с введенной программой; вырабатывать свои суждения; возможности ограничены программой, заложенной в него человеком; дать требуемую информацию; электрические импульсы; со скоростью света; мгновенно производить огромное количество математических операций; человеку может не хватить всей жизни, чтобы закончить работу.

Составьте пары или группы близких по значению слов из перечня, приведенного ниже.

Например: A. to perform, to exercise, to carry out; B. a man,

a person, a human being;

Verbs: to turn on, to provide, to type, to accept, to help, to learn, to observe, to call, to tell, to keep, to feed, to solve, to relate, to switch off, to communicate, to receive, to supply, to switch on, to assist, to print, to study, to input, to turn off, to decide, to store, to say, to name, to watch.

Nouns: work, machine, fundamentals, display, application, capabilities, job, storage, screen, state, basics, use, concept, specialist, journal, character, memory, idea, expert, magazine, position, symbol, command, data, solution, device, instruction, powers, information, decision.

Adjectives: basic, tiny, common, small, main, significant, routine, general, remarkable, uninterested, intricate, important, wonderful, complex, little.

Adverbs: rapidly, probably, instantaneously, in a moment, quickly, perhaps.

Выполните письменный перевод текста 3 по вариантам.

Text 3. APPLICATION OF COMPUTERS

At present a great deal of the work force of most countries is engaged in creating, processing, storing, communicating and just working with information. Computers have become commonplace in homes, offices, stores, schools, research institutes, plants.

The use of computers in business, industry and communication services is widespread today. Computer-controlled robots are able to improve the quality of manufactured products and to increase the productivity of industry. Computers can control the work of power stations, plants and docks. They help in making different decisions and in management of economy.

The work of banks depends upon computer terminals for millions of daily operations. Without these terminals, records of deposits and withdrawals would be difficult to maintain, and it would be impossible to make inquiries about the current status of customer accounts.

Computers form a part of many military systems including communication and fire control. They are applied for automatic piloting and automatic navigation. Space exploration depends on computers for guidance, on-board environment and research.

Computers find application in astronomy and upper atmosphere research. Weather forecasting, library information services can benefit from computers too.

It is interesting to note that computers are widely used in medicine. They became valuable medical diagnostic tools. Computers are used for optical scanning and image processing, ranging from pattern recognition to image processing. Technicians can operate computer tomography scanners which combine x-rays with computer technology to give sectional views of the body of patients. The views then can be combined into a single image shown on the screen.

It should be noticed that learning on a computer can be fun. Students spend more time with computer-aided instruction performing the assigned task, as compared with conventional classroom.

At last air traffic control is impossible without computer application. It fully depends upon computer-generated information.

Many other uses of computers that we cannot imagine at present will become commonplace in the transition from an industrial to post industrial, or information society.

Notes

to maintain records — вести учет

deposits and withdrawal — вклады и изъятие (выемка)

guidance — наведение (на цель); управление; руководство

on-board environment — бортовое окружение pattern recognition — распознавание образов

TESTS

1.Выберите вариант, который лучше всего выражает главную идею текста 2.

a) Computers are devices that accept information in the form of instructions.

в) The switches are usually in one of two states: magnetized or demagnetized.

c) Computers are remarkable devices serving for processing and storage the information and for solving problems.

Вставьте необходимые слова вместо пропусков.

Information is given into the computer in the form of ____.

a) ideas; b) characters; c) rules

2. The basic function of a computer is ______ information.

a) to switch; b) to keep; c) to process

3. The data needed for solving problems are kept in the ____.

a) memory; b) input device; c) output device

4. Inputting information into the computer is realized by means of ____.

a) a printer; b) letters; c) diskettes

5. A computer can carry out arithmetic-logical operations _____.

a) quickly; b) instantaneously; c) during some minutes

6. Computers have become_____ in homes, offices, research institutes.

a) commonwealth; b) commonplace; c) common room

7. Space- ____ uses computers widely.

a) information; b) production; c) exploration

8. Computers are used for image____.

a) processing; b) operating; c) producing

9. Computers help in _____ of economy.

a) invironment; b) management; c) government.

10. Air traffic control depends on computer-_____ information.

a) generated; b) instructed; c) combined

Подберите к терминам, данным в левой колонке, определения, представленные справа.

1. Computer

a) a machine by which information is received from the computer;

2. Data

b) a device capable of storing and manipulating numbers, letters and characters;

3. Input device

c) an electronic machine that processes

data under the control of a stored program;

4. Memory

d) a disk drive reading the information

into the computer;

5. Output device

e) information given in the form of characters.

Text 4. DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTRONICS

1. Ознакомьтесь с терминами.

applied physics — прикладная физика

generation — создание, формирование, выработка

scientific research— научные исследования

due to the efforts— благодаря усилиям

manipulation— управление; обработка; преобразование

to replace vacuum tubes — заменять электронные лампы

a piece of semiconductor — полупроводниковый кристалл

reduced weight — уменьшенный вес

power consumption — потребление (расход)электроэнергии

to carry out — выполнять; осуществлять

solid body — твердое тело; кристалл; полупроводник

to respond — отвечать; реагировать

at a rate — со скоростью

integrated circuit (IC) — интегральная схема

batch processing— пакетная обработка

to assemble — собирать; монтировать

to lower manufacturing — снизить производительность

to increase reliability — увеличить надежность

2. Прочтите текст и скажите, что изучает электроника и какие открытия способствовали ее развитию.

Electronics is a field of engineering and applied physics dealing with the design and application of electronic circuits. The operation of circuits depends on the flow of electrons for generation, transmission, reception and storage of information.



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